GHS制度简介、主要内容及GHS版本的发展

来自: MSDS/SDS数据中心
更新时间: 2017-06-10
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第一、GHS制度简介与发展背景


GHS是英文Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals的缩写,中文全名为“全球化学品统一分类和标签制度”,简称全球统一制度。分别由联合国经济合作暨发展组织(OECD)负责制订化学品对人体健康与环境之危害分类标准、联合国危险货物运输专家委员会(UNCETDG)负责制订化学品物理性安全标准,最后再由国际劳工组织(ILO)根据上述两标准来制订标示及分类方式。

在各国的参与努力下,于2002年12月完成了制订,联合国经济社会委员会于2003年7月会议中正式通过。并在2005年完成第一版修订文件(The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals,简称GHS,联合国文件编号: ST/SG/AC.10/30/Rev.1,2005,简称GHS紫皮书)。

 

第二、GHS的主要内容


  危害性分类

        GHS制度  将化学品的危害大致分为3大类28项:

        1) 物理危害(如,易燃液体、氧化性固体等16项)。

        2) 健康危害(如,急性毒性、皮肤腐蚀/刺激等10项)。

        3) 环境危害(如,水、臭氧层等2项)。

㈡ 危害信息公示

       GHS制度采用两种方式公示化学品的危害信息:

        1)  标签。

        2)  安全数据单(safety data sheet,简称SDS)。

        注:在我国的标准中常称为“物质安全数据表”(MSDS)。

               在GHS制度中一个完整的标签至少含有5个部分:信号词,危险说明,象形图,防范说明等。

               化学品危害信息统一公示之安全数据单(SDS)包括下面十六方面的内容:点击查看

 

第三、GHS版本的发展


GHS Rev.1 (2005): includes, inter alia, various revised provisions concerning classification and labelling, new provisions for aspiration hazards and new guidance on the use of precautionary statements and pictograms and on the preparation of safety data sheets

GHS Rev.2 (2007): includes, inter alia, new and revised provisions concerning the classification and labelling of explosives; respiratory and skin sensitizers; toxic by inhalation gases and gas mixtures; additional guidance on the interpretation of the building block approach and on the evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of chemicals; and the codification of hazard and precautionary statements

GHS Rev.3 (2009): includes, inter alia, new provisions for the allocation of hazard statements and for the labelling of small packagings; two new sub-categories for respiratory and skin sensitization; the revision of the classification criteria for long-term hazards (chronic toxicity) to the aquatic environment; and a new hazard class for substances and mixtures hazardous to the ozone layer

GHS Rev.4 (2011):  includes, inter alia, new hazard categories for chemically unstable gases and non-flammable aerosols; further rationalization of precautionary statements and further clarification of some of the criteria to avoid differences in their interpretation

GHS Rev.5 (2013):  includes, inter alia, a new test method for oxidizing solids, miscellaneous provisions intended to further clarify the criteria for some hazard classes (skin corrosion/irritation, severe eye damage/irritation, and aerosols) and to complement the information to be included in the Safety Data Sheet; revised and simplified classification and labelling summary tables; a new codification system for hazard pictograms, and revised and further rationalized precautionary statements.

GHS Rev.6 (2015): includes, inter alia, a new hazard class for desensitized explosives and a new hazard category for pyrophoric gases; miscellaneous provisions intended to clarify the criteria for some hazard classes (explosives, specific target organ toxicity following single exposure, aspiration hazard and hazardous to the aquatic environment); additional information to be included in the Safety Data Sheets (section 9); revised and further rationalized precautionary statements and a new example in Annex 7 addressing labelling of small packagings.

 

 

 

 

 

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